The CSSU RtI Leadership Team read selected chapters from Robert Marzano’s Classroom Instruction That Works. Below are the key points from each chapter.
Marzano researched classroom based strategies that support all learners. This book describes, in detail, these effective strategies.
Our work in our data teams requires us to create SMART goals for our struggling students. Specific instructional strategies are a component of SMART goals. This resource will help teachers identify what strategies/practices they can implement in their classroom to address the goals and get results. March 2011
Chapter 1: Applying the Research on Instruction: An Idea Whose Time has Come
Research Based Strategies:
Chapter 2 : Similarities & Differences
The goal is to enhance student understanding by:
· Explicit teaching & guidance in identifying similarities and differences
· Provide graphic and symbolic representations of meaning
· Utilize a variety of formats:
o Create metaphors
o Create analogies
· Allows transfer of meaning across contexts
Can be teacher directed and student directed.
Chapter 3: Summarizing & Note Taking
· When students know the structure of the text, they are better able to access the content and gain deeper meaning.
· Frames for text structures serve multiple purposes:
o Pre-reading or previewing the content
o Sets purpose for reading
o Provides structure for note taking or summarizing content
· Narrative structure may be a bit limiting for a lengthy novel…but could be modified to fit the purpose.
· Notetaking –one of the two most important skills students can have.
o Amount of notes students take correlates to higher achievement on tests
o Teacher provides a model for notetaking
o Offering multiple ways to take notes –allows for differentiation of thinkers
· “3-2-1” and “Trash/Treasure” --two resources that address summarizing & note-taking
Chapter 4: Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition
· Caution about providing intrinsic rewards not connected to achieving the standard
· Teach the relationship between effort and achievement
· Effort can be taught
· Praise needs to describe students progress
· Focus on students’ performance on a given task.Chapter 5: Homework and Practice
Chapter 6: Nonlinguistic RepresentationsImportance of the opportunity for "dual coding"' information for students --- knowledge is stored both in linguistic and image form. .
Power of elaboration is enhanced by asking students to explain or justify their answers.
Examples of Nonlinguistic representations:
emages (feel & see)
- Graphic organizers
- Physical models
- Pictures and pictographs
- Kinesthetic Activity
- Generating mental images
Chapter 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
· Goal setting is the process of establishing a direction for learning
· Three generalizations from the research:
o Instructional goals narrow what students focus on
o Instructional goals should not be too specific
o Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals
· Classroom Practice: Important for teacher to set goals for students, but it is also important for the goals to be general enough to provide students with some flexibility.
· Providing Feedback: “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. “ (Hattie, 1992
· Feedback should be:
o Corrective in nature
o Specific to the criterion
o Student generated, at times
Chapter 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Chapter 10: Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
· Use of a K-W-L to establish prior knowledge & where to start
· Questions –elicit prior knowledge
· Higher level questioning results in deeper thinking & learning
· Cues ---support vocabulary development
· All about engaging students to determine what information needs to be taught and the level of scaffolding required.
Chapter 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge
Chapter 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning
Chapter 13: Afterword